This page contains a list of the people (Classical, biblical or historical) mentioned in the First Examination, followed by links to biographical information indicated by the name of the resource site. This data can also be found in the apparatus of the PDF edition available under ‘Texts’ in this website. The ‘Editorial Note’ in it clarifies the sources used. Information has been digested from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), and a few other non-electronic sources duly noted, when no reliable or adequate free online resource for an individual could be found.


Abraham Wikipedia
Adam Wikipedia
Algerus Wikipedia
Antiochus IV Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Askew, Anne Wikipedia.
Askew, William Wikipedia
Bale, John Luminarium
Barnes, Robert Encyclopaedia Britannica
Barton, Elizabeth (Holy Maid of Kent) Luminarium
Bede Encyclopaedia Britannica
Blandina (Saint) Wikipedia
Bocking, Edward Wikisource DNB
Bonner, Edmund Luminarium
Boschius, Arnoldus Arnoldus Bostius of Ghent, 1446–4 April 1499. Bostius (Boschius, de Bost) entered the Carmelite monastery, in his native Ghent and was elected prior several times. It has not been established where he studied of what degrees he obtained, and in general very little is known about his life.Bostius soon earned his reputation as a theologian, poet, and historian and was on friendly terms with a large number of scholars and humanists of the time, among them Ermolao Barbaro, Baptista Mantuanus, Johannes Trithemius, Conrad Celtis, Robert Gaguin, Charles and Jean Fernand, Cornelio Vitelli, Cornelis Gerard (Ep 81), and Willem Hermans (Ep 65A). Bostius encouraged their literary activity and always asked for copies of their works; thus he became a pivotal figure in the exchanges between the Italian and Parisian humanists and the Netherlands. Bostius himself wrote several theological and historical works focused on the Virgin Mary and on the Carmelite order. He died at Ghent in 1499.From Peter G. Bietenholz, Thomas Brian Deutscher eds. Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation, 1–3 (Toronto: University of Torornto Press, 1985). Reprint 2003. p. 176.
Caesariensis, Eusebius Encyclopaedia Britannica
Caiaphas, Joseph (Cayphas) The Jewish Encyclopedia
Caius Julius (Julius Caesar) J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D’Ooge and M. Grant Daniell eds., ‘Caesar’s Literary Work’ in Caesar’s Gallic War (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1898) available in the Perseus Project. Caesar’s literary rather than political career is pertinent to Bale’s citation.
Cecilia (Saint) Wikipedia
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Cochlaeus, Johannes Wikipedia
Contractus, Hermanus New Advent Encyclopaedia
Crome, Edward Edward Crome (d. 1562), clergyman and religious controversialist. Although known for his political savvy in negotiating the dangerous waters of the reformist movement, in 1547 he attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation in sermons delivered at St Mary Aldermary and at the Mercer’s chapel, St Thomas Acon, preaching that the mass was a commemoration of Christs’ death. He was accused of heresy like Askew, seemed to submit but was urged not to by fellow reformers like Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Shaxton. He appeared at Paul’s Cross on 27 June to deliver an ambiguous apology. Askew, who had attended his sermons, was burned on 16 July. See Susan Wabuda, ‘Crome, Edward (d. 1562)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 [, accessed 22 Jan 2015]. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6749
David Wikipedia
Elijah (Helias) Encyclopaedia Britannica
Equilinus, Petrus (Petrus de Natalibus) New Advent Encyclopedia
Erasmus, Desiderius Encyclopaedia
Eva (Anchoress, Saint) (Eva of Liege or Eva of St Martin) Anchoress Eva (c. 1205-65). The following passage from Butler’s Lives of the Saints, first published 1999, Kent: Burns & Oates, 1999. Original Butler’s Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints[…] (London, 1756–9). First revised edition Herbert Thurston, S.J. ed., Butler’s Lives of the Saints (Kent: Burns, Oates & Washburn Limited, 1926–38). Second edition Herbert Thurston S.J., and Donald Attwater eds., (Kent: Burns & Oates Limited, 1954–8) provides some details of her life:’Eva, or Heva, was born between 1205 and 1210. She seems to have become a recluse at the suggestion of Bd Juliana […] and spent the rest of her life in a cell attached to St Martin’s church in Liege—hence the other name by which she is sometimes known, Eva of St Martin. She and Juliana became close friends, and it was with her that Juliana took refuge when she was forced to leave her convent for the first time […]’ [p. 34] She was associated with the establishment of the feast of Corpus Christi.
Fichard, Johann (Fichardus) Wikipedia
Fisher, John Encyclopaedia Britannica
Floriacensis, Hugo New Advent Encyclopedia
Forest, John (Friar Forest) Wikipedia
Frith, John The Unabridged Acts and Monuments Online
Gamaliel Encyclopaedia Britannica
Gardiner, Stephen, Bishop of Winchester Luminarium
Guitmond of Aversa (Guimundus Aversanus) Wikipedia
Hall, Edward Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Helena (Empress) Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Henry IV, King of England Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Henry le Despenser Henry le Despenser, the ‘Fighting Bishop,’ 1370–1406. See Wikisource DNB.
Herod, King of Judaea (Herode) Encylopaedia Britannica
Hilda of Whitby Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Hunt, Walter Walter Hunt, also called Venantius, d. 1478, was a Carmelite friar and theologian at Oxford. He played a prominent role in the negotiations between the Latin and Greek Orthodox churches, representing the English Carmelite side. Bale attests that he was a prolific writer, although only two short texts survive. Bale saw his works in the Carmelite library at Oxford and records twenty-five titles, among which is noted a treatise against preaching by women. For sources see Richard Copsey, ‘Hunt , Walter (d. 1478)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004., accessed 10 March 2015. DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/14211
Huss, Jan Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Isaiah (Esaie/Esaye) Wikipedia
Jacob Wikipedia
James (Apostle) Wikipedia
Jeremiah (Hieremyes) Wikipedia
Jerome (Saint) Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Joachim Wikipedia
John (Saint) (Apostle) Wikipedia
John Huntington Church of England clergyman and poet, d. 1583. He was known as Huntington the Preacher.  His early sympathies were Catholic. He composed a polemical poem around 1540 which contained verses such as ‘O braynlesse nodye/ Christ sayd my bodye/ Is verely meate/ For manne to eat’ which survives only in John Bale’s refutation of it in A Mysterye of Inyquyte Contayned within the Heretycall Genealogye of Ponce Pantolabus in 1545. According to Bale, he converted to Protestantism by 1545 and thus he is mentioned by Askew as a sympathetic clergyman. Sourced from Richard Rex, ‘Huntington, John (d. 1583)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2009 [, accessed 8 March 2015]. DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/14241.
John the Baptist Encyclopaedia Britannica
Lascelles, John Wikipedia
Luther, Martin Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Lydia of Thyatira Wikipedia
Melanchthon, Philip (P.M) Wikipedia
More, Thomas Encyclopaedia Britannica
Moses Wikipedia
Netter, Thomas (Thomas of Walden) Wikisource DNB
Noah (Noe) Wikipedia
Paleonydorum, John Johannes Paleonydorum, pseud. of John Oudewarer of Mechlin, d. 1507. Elaine Beilin notes that Bale’s transcript of this correspondence is now in the Bodleian Library, MS Selden, supra 41. Paleonydorum was a Flemish Carmelite monk.  From 1495–97 he wrote three histories of his own order, chief among which, the Liber trimerestus, is considered to be the first printed history of the Carmelites. The British Library MS Cotton Vitellius D. iv is a badly damaged transcript of the 1497 Mainz edition.
Paul (Apostle) Wikipedia
Peryn, William Wikisource DNB
Peter (Saint) Wikipedia
Pierozzi Antonino (Antoninus) New Advent Encyclopedia
Pighius, Albert Wikipedia
Pilate, Pontius Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Pliny the Elder Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Pope Honorius III Encyclopaedia Britannica
Pope Urbanus IV Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Pope Urbanus VI Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Rich, Richard Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Rivius, Johannes Wikipedia
Sampson, Richard (Doctor Sampson) Wikipedia
Scotus, John Duns Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Shaxton, Nicholas Wikipedia
Standish, John John Standish, c. 1509–1570, church of England clergyman, Bishop Bonner’s appointee as rector of St Andrew Undershaft in London and later vicar of Northall, Middlesex. He advocated the burning of English Bibles, thus incurring Bale’s wrath.
Stephen (Saint) (Steuen) New Advent Encyclopedia
Strabo Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Tacitus, Publius Cornelius Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Tyndale, William Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Ursula (Saint) Encyclopaedia Brittanica
van der Straten, Dirik (Theodoricus Plateanus) See note on the printer in Context.
Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius) New Advent Encyclopaedia
von Hutten, Ulrich (Huttenum) Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Weston, Hugh Wikipedia
Whitehead, David Wikisource DNB
Wriothesley, Thomas Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Wycliffe, John Encyclopaedia Brittanica


[Back to top]